This Resource Center curates the growing number of publications and resources that highlight the effectiveness of small water enterprises. This is a step toward building a community of practice that harnesses the know-how, market knowledge, and resources needed to improve and scale small water enterprises globally. We value the sharing of information, and invite you to e-mail us with any materials you believe will be helpful to others.
The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale
Dalberg Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.
Evidence-Based Tailoring of Behavior-Change Campaigns: Increasing Fluoride-Free Water Consumption in Rural Ethiopia with Persuasion
Huber, A., Tobias, R., and Mosler, H-J.
Applied Psychology: Health and Wellbeing
Two hundred million people worldwide are at risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis due to excessive fluoride uptake from their water. Behavior-change campaigns implemented in Ethiopia show interventions are more likely effective if based on evidence and tailored to specific households.
Output-Based Aid for Delivering WASH Services in Vietnam: Ensuring Sustainability and Reaching the Poor
Nguyen, M., Ljung, P., Nguyen, H.
37th WEDC International Conference, Hanoi, Vietnam,
Output-Based Aid (OBA) is used to provide sustainable access to clean water. East Meets West (EMW) - an international NGO - used this aid to successfully complete a WASH project, increasing stakeholder interest in using OBA to help reach WASH goals.
Safe Water Network operates in markets where incomes are insufficient and inflation is rampant, making sustainability of water systems difficult. By using innovative approaches and field-testing all implementations, the organization aims to standardize the model for easy replication and scalability.
Water Source and Diarrhoeal Disease Risk in Children Under 5 Years Old in Cambodia: A Prospective Diary-Based Study
Hunter, P.R., et al.
BMC Public Health
Using data on diarrhoeal disease risk in Cambodian children under 5 years old, this study raises serious concerns about the validity of assuming protected groundwater is safe water for the purposes of assessing MDG targets. Furthermore, the study suggests that water provided by the NGO 1001 Fontaines provides a safer alternative to groundwater or surface water.
Small Town Water Services: Trends, Challenges and Models
IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
Since 2007, more people live in urban areas than rural areas. Small towns are expected to grow in number making it essential to understand how to equip them with sustainable water services. There is a growing role for the private sector in providing these services, along with the public sector.
Sustainable Water Services Delivery Project Report
Fisher, M., Lecker, H., Samani, D., and Apoya, P.
Water and Sanitation for Africa, UNC Water Institute, Conrad N. Hilton Foundation
The results of this collaborative assessment show approximately 80% of the water points surveyed were functional - the functionality of older water points decreased by 2% per year of age and systems collecting a tariff were 40% more likely to be functional than those without a tariff.
Designing Philanthropy for Impact: Giving to the Biggest Gaps in India
Mangaleswaran, R., and Venkataraman, R.
McKinsey & Company
"Designing for impact" (before starting interventions) is integral to the dialogue in philanthropy in India. This paper assesses the biggest gaps in philanthropy in India along two dimensions - sectors or causes and modes or types of interventions. Water is identified as a critical gap.
Cluster-randomised controlled trials of individual and combined water, sanitation, hygiene and nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh and Kenya: the WASH Benefits study design and rationale
Arnold et al.
The WASH Benefits study aims to fill the evidence gap on the effects of individual and combined interventions - water quality, sanitation, handwashing and nutritional - on diarrhea and growth when delivered to infants and young children. Here, study design and rationale are explained.
Effect of Household-Based Drinking Water Chlorination on Diarrhoea among Children under Five in Orissa, India: A Double-Blind Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial
Boisson et al.
This study, designed to overcome shortcomings of previous double-blinded trials of household water treatment, provides no evidence that the intervention was protective against diarrhoea. Low compliance and modest reduction in water contamination may have contributed to the lack of effect.
Public Health and Social Benefits of at-house Water Supplies
Evans, B., Bartram, J., Hunter, P., Williams, A.R., Geere, J., Majuru, B., Bates, L., Fisher, M., Overbo, Al, Schmidt, W.
University of Leeds
At-home water supply has significant, measurable benefits compared to shared water supply outside the home provided that the service provided is reliable enough to ensure access to adequate quantities of water when required, suggesting a logical policy shift towards promotion of household access.