Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.



Sustainable Energy & Water Access through M2M Connectivity

Nique, M., & Arab, F.
Jan. 2013

More people are now covered by mobile networks than have access to energy and water. M2M has created opportunities to reach and empower underserved populations with improved reliability of rural water projects - one example is low cost GSM enabled remote monitoring of water pumps.

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The Decentralized Water Market: Assessing and Overcoming the Hurdles to Scale in Kenya

Safe Water Network and International Finance Corporation
Sanitation and Safe Water for All (SSAWA) program
Jan. 2013

An assessment of experiences with decentralized market-based approaches in the Kenya water sector identifies options for attracting greater commercial investment in the sector, both in Kenya and elsewhere. Opportunities lie in private  commercial operators to work in concert with sector reform. 

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The Joint Effects of Efficacy and Compliance: A Study of Household Water Treatment Effectiveness Against Childhood Diarrhea

Enger, K., Nelson, K., Rose, J., Eisenberg, J.
Dec. 2012

The effectiveness of household water treatment on preventing diarrhea is dependent on efficacy and whether the treatment is done properly each time to the drinking water. Without perfect compliance, the water remains contaminated and incidence of diarrhea does not decrease.

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Evaluating the Sustained Health Impact of Household Chlorination of Drinking Water in Rural Haiti

Harshfield, E., Lantagne, D., Turbes, A., and Null, C.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sep. 2012

An evaluation of the long-term Jolivert Safe Water for Families program in Haiti showed diarrheal disease reduction was comparable with that seen in short-term randomized, controlled interventions, suggesting that household chlorination can be an effective long-term water treatment strategy. 

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Decentralized Safe Water Kiosks: Working Toward a Sustainable Model in Ghana

Safe Water Network
Aug. 2012

This report details the specific challenges Safe Water Network faced in Ghana since 2009, when it set out to demonstrate whether locally-owned, decentralized safe water systems could meet demand for safe water in Ghana on a sustainable basis. It also identifies the next set of priorities. 

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Accelerating Impact: Achievements, Challenges and What's Next in Building the Impact Investing Industry

E.T. Jackson and Associates Ltd
Rockefeller Foundation
Jul. 2012

A scan of the evolution of the impact investment worldwide, informed by interviews with more than 100 impact investors from 11 countries, shows the industry  remains in the market-building phase but could evolve to the next phase in which stakeholders fully capture the value of the marketplace.

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Public-Private Partnerships for Rural Water Services

IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
Jun. 2012

Well-designed rural water PPPs have shown some success in countries with civil law but proof that this model will deliver sustainable rural water supplies at scale, however, awaits more data on long-term costs, profitability, and performance.

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Achieving Financial Sustainability and Recovering Costs in Bank Financed Water Supply and Sanitation and Irrigation Projects

McPhail, A., Locussol, A., Perry, Chris.
Water Partnership Project
Jun. 2012

Difficulty in making water systems financially sustainable causes inability to maintain infrastructure, leading to poor service, and hence increased unwillingness of consumer to pay for service. This cycle is one of many reasons for poor financial sustainability.

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Financing Small-Scale Infrastructure Investments in Developing Countries

Bond, D., Platz, D., and Magnusson, M.
UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs
May. 2012

In developing countries a shortage of long-term, local-currency financing for small-scale infrastructure projects impedes local economic development. Project finance attracts financing from domestic banks and institutional investors. Donors can provide technical assistance and credit enhancement. 

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Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress

Onda, K., LoBuglio, J., and Bartram, J.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mar. 2012

Authors estimate 1.8 billion people used unsafe water in 2010 and 1.2 billion use water from sources or systems with significant sanitary risks. While imprecise, the magnitude of the estimate suggest greater attention is needed to better understand and manage water safety. 

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