Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.



Interventions to Improve Water Quality for Preventing Diarrhoea: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Clasen, T., Schmidt, W., Rabie, T., Roberts, I., Cairncross, S.
Mar. 2007

This study assesses the effectiveness of interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water in preventing diarrhea. Some evidence found that household interventions were significantly more effective in preventing diarrhea than sanitation and hygiene interventions.

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Cost-Effectiveness of Water Quality Interventions for Preventing Diarrhoeal Disease in Developing Countries

Clasen, T., Haller, L., Walker, D., Bartram, J., Cairncross, S.
Journal of Water and Health
Jan. 2007

This paper compares non-piped water sources to four types of household based interventions by cost-effectiveness. Results showed that household based chlorination was most cost-effective where there were limited resources. Generally, all source and household based interventions were cost-effective.

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Planning for Drinking Water and Sanitation in Peri-Urban Areas

Norström, A.
Swedish Water House
Jan. 2007

Peri-urban communities are growing rapidly in developing countries. In each locality, the growth, culture, and problems are unique, therefore water and sanitation provision strategies need to be contextualized to improve individual communities.

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Private and Social Enterprise Engagement in Water and Sanitation for the Poor: A Systematic Review of Current Evidence

Enterprise in WASH
Jan. 2007

Small water enterprises are emerging as key players of safe water delivery. This report assesses their effectiveness, sustainability, and quality of service. Most providers are personally invested in their local communities, which gives the business a natural ability to succeed.

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Water Stories: Expanding Opportunities in Small-Scale Water and Sanitation Projects

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
Environmental Change and Security Program
Jan. 2007

This report discusses the importance and ways to scale up and increase the efficiency of small water enterprises, including a number of household treatment and storage methods, the importance of involving communities and the challenges of overcoming poor policy.

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Tackling Corruption in the Water and Sanitation Sector in Africa: Starting the Dialogue

Plummer, J., Cross, P.
Water and Sanitation Program
Dec. 2006

Even if additional finances become available to help African countries meet their water demand, leakage of existing resources causes problems. This report explores the extent of corruption in the water sector, and the potential anti-corruption mechanisms.

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Public-Private Partnerships in Water Supply and Sanitation –Recent Trends and New Opportunities

Saghir, J.
The World Bank
Nov. 2006

Public-private partnerships have increased in recent years. The public sector provides policy and regulatory frameworks whereas the private sector provides the capital and experience. International agencies such as the World Bank have facilitated and encouraged the growth of such partnerships.

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The Peri-Urban Water Poor: Citizens or Consumers?

Allen, A., Davila, J., Hofmann, P.
International Institute for Environment and Development; Vol 18 (2), 333-351
Oct. 2006

This paper notes that water and sanitation services for peri-urban communities are rarely driven by formal policy. Instead, the poor populations in these regions are forced to pay market prices to for-profit companies that become their only source of water.

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Drinking Water and Sanitation in Rural Maharashtra: A Review of Policy Initiatives

Das, K.
Forum for Watershed Research and Policy Dialogue
Sep. 2006

There is a looming threat of a water shortage in India as the population increases and water sources are depleted. It is important to invest in cost-effective technologies, communities and local institutions, and empowering women in order to effectively provide water to the vast population.

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Implementation, Critical Factors and Challenges to Scale-Up of Household Drinking Water Treatment and Safe Storage Systems

Murcott, S.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
May. 2006

Household drinking water treatment and safe storage systems empower people to attain the basic human right of drinking safe water. Scale-up of these technologies is important, and WHO has expanded its recommendations to include making more resources available to program implementers.

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