Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.



Approaches to Private Participation in Water Services: A Toolkit

Public-Private Partnership Advisory Facility
The World Bank
Jan. 2006

This Toolkit helps developing country governments interested in using private firms to expand access to safe water and sanitation services at reasonable cost. Its focus is on design arrangements governing private participation that maximize benefits for their countries, provinces, or municipalities.

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Urbanization in Developing Countries: Current Trends, Future Projections, and Key Challenges for Sustainability

Cohen, B.
Technology in Society
Jan. 2006

Rapid urbanization in developing countries has put a strain on cities' abilities to provide adequate basic infrastructure. Many international agencies have not accurately assessed the anticipated urban growth rates, or are unaware of the growing urban poor population.

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Reducing Diarrhoea in Guatemalan Children: Randomized Controlled Trial of Flocculant Disinfectant for Drinking Water

Chiller, T. et al.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Jan. 2006

A randommized control trial among rural Guatemalan households shows households receiving a commercially-developed flocculant-disinfectant had a reduced prevalnece of diarrhoea, especially among children aged < 1 year, than those using standrad water-handing practies. 

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Household-Based Ceramic Water Filters for the Prevention of Diarrhea: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of a Pilot Program in Colombia

Clasen, T., Parra, G., Boisson, S., and Collin, S.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Oct. 2005

Ceramic filters were associated with reduced diarrhea prevalance in a randmized, controlled trial in Colombia. However, the circumstances of a particular setting must be considered as microbiologic performance and protective effect of the filters was not uniform throughout the study communities.

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State Versus Private Sector Provision of Water Services in Africa: An Empirical Analysis

Kirkpatrick, C., Parker, D., Zhang, Y.
University of Manchester
Sep. 2005

This study analyzes the effect of privatization of water in Africa. It fails to find evidence of better performance by private utilities compared to state-owned, and concludes that water privatization in developing economies is problematic due to the nature of transaction and poor regulations.

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Household Based Treatment of Drinking Water with Flocculant-Disinfectant for Preventing Diarrhoea in Areas with Turbid Source Water in Rural Western Kenya: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

Crump, J. et al.
Jul. 2005

In areas of turbid water, flocculant-disinfectant was associated with a significant reduction in diarrhoea among children < 2 years. Results suggest that the flocculant-disinfectant is well suited to areas with highly contaminated and turbid water.

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The Importance of Domestic Water Quality Management in the Context of Fecal–Oral Disease Transmission

Trevett, A., Carter, R., Tyrrel, S.
Journal of Water and Health
Jan. 2005

This paper examines the health risks of consuming recontaminated water at the household level. The type of container used to store the water, and hand contact with the water has shown to increase incidence of diarrhea. Infants and immunodeficient persons are at most risk.

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Water, Electricity, and the Poor: Who Benefits from Utility Subsidies?

Komives, K., Foster, V., Halpern, J., Wodon, Q.
The World Bank
Jan. 2005

Pro-Poor Subsidies for Water Connections in West Africa

Debomy, S., Lauria, D., and Hopkins, O.
World Bank Group
Jan. 2005

This preliminary evaluation of subsidy schemes in Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire providing piped water to the poor shows that lives of targeted beneficiaries of social connections are improved, but outcomes are not all positive.  A reexamination is needed to clarify the real focus of social connections. 

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Deficiencies in Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Developing Countries

Lee, E., Schwab, K.
Journal of Water and Health
Jan. 2005

Urban populations are growing, and this paper highlights how developing countries are failing to keep up with the demand for water. Deteriorating central water systems are primarily to blame, as they are poorly maintained and tend to leak or corrode, posing serious health risks.

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