This Resource Center curates the growing number of publications and resources that highlight the effectiveness of small water enterprises. This is a step toward building a community of practice that harnesses the know-how, market knowledge, and resources needed to improve and scale small water enterprises globally. We value the sharing of information, and invite you to e-mail us with any materials you believe will be helpful to others.
The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale
Dalberg Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.
Rapid Assessment of Water Supply: City of Visakhapatnam
Safe Water Network
The first in a series of reports under the USAID-funded Urban Small Water Enterprises for Smarter Cities project, this report gives an in-depth look at the city water supply in Vizag with important findings for improving efficiencies of the piped network, and expanding urban small water enterprises.
Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis
Shields, K., Bain, R., Cronk, R., Wright, J., Bartram, J.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol 123, Number 12
This study assessed the relationship between fecal contamination at water source and in household stored water, and found that water quality substantially deteriorates by the time it reaches the household. Non-piped water has higher odds of being contaminated, possibly due to residual chlorine.
Upgrading a Piped Water Supply from Intermittent to Continuous Delivery and Association with Waterborne Illness: A Matched Cohort Study in Urban India
Ercumen, A., Arnold, B., Kumpel, E., Burt, Z., Ray, I., Nelson, K., Colford Jr., J.
This study proves that intermittent delivery of piped water compared to continuous delivery can lead to waterborne diseases because of pipe contamination, during household storage, use of alternative water which is unsafe, and limited water availability for hygiene.
Sustainable Supply of Safe Drinking Water for Underserved Households in Kenya: Investigating the Viability of Decentralized Solutions
Cherunya, P., Janezic, C., Leuchner, M.
Open Access Water, Vol 7, 5437-5457
This study compares user preference and perception of water quality and water provision services in underserved communities in Kenya. Most households consume water from multiple sources and perceive their drinking water to be unclean. They are aware of water treatment methods, but treat irregularly.
Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea
Luby, S., Halder, A., Huda, T., Unicomb, L., Islam, M., Arnold, B., Johnston, R.
The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Vol. 93 904-911
The study assesses the relationship between microbiological contamination of drinking water and incidence of child diarrhea. Increase in E.coli contamination shows an increase in prevalence of child diarrhea, showing the importance of improved microbiological quality of drinking water for health.
Analysis of Accessibility to Water Supply and Sanitation Services in the Awutu-Senya East Municipality, Ghana
Peprah, C., Oduro-Ofori, E., Asante-Wusu, I.
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology,
Awutu-Senya East Municipality receives the majority of their water from private suppliers, and some from public systems. Most of this water is salty, and contaminated. Private suppliers have unregulated prices. Additionally, sanitation is poor across the municipality with no regulation.
It is very difficult to assess what contributes the largest burden to diarrhea: food-borne, water-borne, or other transmission routes. Incidence of diarrhea and water quality in the house were assessed, and concluded that water is not the largest contributor to diarrhea.
One in six people live in water-stressed conditions due to poor water availability and accessibility, high water tariffs, poor water quality, over extraction of sources, etc. Governments, corporations, NGOs and agencies have taken action to reduce the number of underserved populations.
Interventions to Improve Water Quality for Preventing Diarrhea (Review)
Arienzo, A., Sobze, M., Wadoum, R., Losito, F., Colizzi, V., Antonini, G.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This study tests the effectiveness of the microbiological survey for accuracy in testing the microbiological quality of water. The evaluation of total coliforms in 1mL of water was used as a parameter. Field tests were done in Cameroon in different wells, confirming MBS as an accurate measure.
Impact at scale requires working within the context of a broader ecosystem and adjusting behaviors in response to change within that system. Six lessons from a large-scale, cross-sector initiative to improve education show the differences between traditional programmatic and ecosystem investing.