Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.



Smart Lessons - Bringing Water to Where It is Needed Most: Innovative Private Sector Participation in Water & Sanitation

International Finance Corporation
World Bank Group; Water and Sanitation Program
Jan. 2016

A variety of experiences highlight innovative and diverse initiatives across the World Bank Group, ranging from the Water Footprints Network that supports businesses improving their water use efficiency to the innovative financing mechanisms enabling the expansion of rural water access in Kenya. 

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Results of Round I of the WHO International Scheme to Evaluate Household Water Treatment Technologies

Jan. 2016

In the short-run, household water treatment and safe storage can reduce contaminated water consumption and thus water-borne diseases. A number of these treatments are available and were found to meet WHO recommended performance targets. Behavior interventions and better regulations are still needed.

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The Costs of Meeting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

Hutton, G., Varughese, M.
Water and Sanitation Program
Jan. 2016

The study assesses the global costs of meeting WASH-related goals of Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG6). It concludes that current  financing is sufficient in covering the capital costs of SDG6, however, three times the amount of current capital investment is required.

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Rapid Assessment of Water Supply: City of Visakhapatnam

Safe Water Network
Dec. 2015

The first in a series of reports under the USAID-funded Urban Small Water Enterprises for Smarter Cities project, this report gives an in-depth look at the city water supply in Vizag with important findings for improving efficiencies of the piped network, and expanding urban small water enterprises. 

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Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis

Shields, K., Bain, R., Cronk, R., Wright, J., Bartram, J.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol 123, Number 12
Dec. 2015

This study assessed the relationship between fecal contamination at water source and in household stored water, and found that water quality substantially deteriorates by the time it reaches the household. Non-piped water has higher odds of being contaminated, possibly due to residual chlorine.

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Upgrading a Piped Water Supply from Intermittent to Continuous Delivery and Association with Waterborne Illness: A Matched Cohort Study in Urban India

Ercumen, A., Arnold, B., Kumpel, E., Burt, Z., Ray, I., Nelson, K., Colford Jr., J.
PLOS Medicine
Oct. 2015

This study proves that intermittent delivery of piped water compared to continuous delivery can lead to waterborne diseases because of pipe contamination, during household storage, use of alternative water which is unsafe, and limited water availability for hygiene.

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Sustainable Supply of Safe Drinking Water for Underserved Households in Kenya: Investigating the Viability of Decentralized Solutions

Cherunya, P., Janezic, C., Leuchner, M.
Open Access Water, Vol 7, 5437-5457
Oct. 2015

This study compares user preference and perception of water quality and water provision services in underserved communities in Kenya. Most households consume water from multiple sources and perceive their drinking water to be unclean. They are aware of water treatment methods, but treat irregularly.

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Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea

Luby, S., Halder, A., Huda, T., Unicomb, L., Islam, M., Arnold, B., Johnston, R.
The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Vol. 93 904-911
Oct. 2015

The study assesses the relationship between microbiological contamination of drinking water and incidence of child diarrhea. Increase in E.coli contamination shows an increase in prevalence of child diarrhea, showing the importance of improved microbiological quality of drinking water for health.

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Analysis of Accessibility to Water Supply and Sanitation Services in the Awutu-Senya East Municipality, Ghana

Peprah, C., Oduro-Ofori, E., Asante-Wusu, I.
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology,
Sep. 2015

Awutu-Senya East Municipality receives the  majority of their water from private suppliers, and some from public systems. Most of this water is salty, and contaminated. Private suppliers have unregulated prices. Additionally, sanitation is poor across the municipality with no regulation.

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Does Poor Water Quality Cause Diarrheal Disease?

Levy, K.
Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University
Sep. 2015

It is very difficult to assess what contributes the  largest burden to diarrhea: food-borne, water-borne, or other transmission routes. Incidence of diarrhea and water quality in the house were assessed, and concluded that water is not the largest contributor to diarrhea.

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