Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Dalberg
Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.

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The State of African Cities 2014: Reimagining Sustainable Urban Transitions

UN Habitat
Jan. 2014

Prevailing development concepts applied to Africa’s rapidly expanding urban areas seem incapable of attaining prosperity for all. A radical re-imagination of approaches to urbanism can strengthen positive impacts of the current multiple transitions and improve urban living and working conditions.

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Intermittent vs. Continuous Water Supply: What Benefits do Households Actually Receive? Evidence from two cities in India

Onda, K.,
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Jan. 2014

This study finds that continuous water supply does not lead to more efficient consumption amongst higher income groups, and frequently leads to more waste across all income groups. Better management will lead to increased accessibility for the poorest and less wastage.

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Chasing for Water': Everyday Practices of Water Access in Peri-Urban Ashaiman, Ghana

Peloso, M., Morinville, C.
Water Alternatives; Vol 7, Issue 1
Jan. 2014

This paper assesses the water access for the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area population. The official water supply system is not sufficient to meet needs, and many households find themselves procuring water from informal suppliers that prove to be more reliable in terms of availability.

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Tapping the Markets: Opportunities for Domestic Investments in Water and Sanitation for the Poor

Sy, J., Warner, R., Jamieson, J.
The World Bank
Jan. 2014

There is a gap in water supply and demand that can be met if governements engage the private sector. The market potential is large, and poor populations are willing to pay for the security of private water services. Their costs and prices can be reduced if scaled, and if policies assist them.

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Water Source and Diarrhoeal Disease Risk in Children Under 5 Years Old in Cambodia: A Prospective Diary-Based Study

Hunter, P.R., et al.
BMC Public Health
Dec. 2013

Using data on diarrhoeal disease risk in Cambodian children under 5 years old, this study raises serious concerns about the validity of assuming protected groundwater is safe water for the purposes of assessing MDG targets. Furthermore, the study suggests that water provided by the NGO 1001 Fontaines provides a safer alternative to groundwater or surface water.

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Small Town Water Services: Trends, Challenges and Models

Adank, M
IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
Dec. 2013

Since 2007, more people live in urban areas than rural areas. Small towns are expected to grow in number making it essential to understand how to equip them with sustainable water services. There is a growing role for the private sector in providing these services, along with the public sector.

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Sustainable Water Services Delivery Project Report

Fisher, M., Lecker, H., Samani, D., and Apoya, P.
Water and Sanitation for Africa, UNC Water Institute, Conrad N. Hilton Foundation
Oct. 2013

The results of this collaborative assessment show approximately 80% of the water points surveyed were functional - the functionality of older water points decreased by 2% per year of age and  systems collecting a tariff were 40% more likely to be functional than those without a tariff.

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Designing Philanthropy for Impact: Giving to the Biggest Gaps in India

Mangaleswaran, R., and Venkataraman, R.
McKinsey & Company
Oct. 2013

"Designing for impact" (before starting interventions) is integral to the dialogue in philanthropy in India. This paper assesses the biggest gaps in philanthropy in India along two dimensions - sectors or causes and modes or types of interventions. Water is identified as a critical gap. 

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Cluster-randomised controlled trials of individual and combined water, sanitation, hygiene and nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh and Kenya: the WASH Benefits study design and rationale

Arnold et al.
BMJ Open
Aug. 2013

The WASH Benefits study aims to fill the evidence gap on the effects of individual and combined interventions - water quality, sanitation, handwashing and nutritional  - on diarrhea and growth when delivered to infants and young children. Here, study design and rationale are explained. 

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Effect of Household-Based Drinking Water Chlorination on Diarrhoea among Children under Five in Orissa, India: A Double-Blind Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial

Boisson et al.
PLoS ONE
Aug. 2013

This study, designed to overcome shortcomings of previous double-blinded trials of household water treatment, provides no evidence that the intervention was protective against diarrhoea. Low compliance and modest reduction in water contamination may have contributed to the lack of effect. 

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